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It is within the recent 10 years that cryptosporidiosis has been confirmed to be a causative agent that can induce disease to human being. For the persons serving animals, cryptosporozoan infection may cause self-constrained diarrhea, and for patients with low immune function, it may transmit through month and alimentary canal. Cryptosporozoans usually infest on the brush-shape edge of intestinal villi, causing external nutrition malabsorption and inner nutrition loss. The clinical manifestations include large quantity of watery stool, several times a day and accompanied with spasmodic colic, nausea, emesis and abdominal distention, leading to dehydration, disturbance of water and electrolyte, acidosis and even shock for the severe. It is the common cause of far-advanced diarrhea for AIDS patients. The disease is diagnosed by finding out the egg capsules of cryptosporozoan in stool through cane sugar floating method or by gastrointestinal tract mucous membrane biopsy with an endoscope. Specific medicines are not available atpresent for this disease, and the supporting treatment includes the control of diarrhea and correction of disturbance of water and electrolyte.
(8)Cytomegalovirus infection
Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that exists and grows in the air and most children and adults can contact. Its infection may be congenital or happen after delivery or through transfusion.
Cytomegalovirus infection can lead to various clinical results. Most babies have no clinical symptom after being infected, but congenital infection may cause abortion and death during or after delivery or serious neural injury. For a few people, it may also develop into leukocytosis and hepatitis. But for 60-80% of adults who have contact with the viruses and have the viruses growing in their body can generate antibodies to control the infection. After infected by the virus, most patients can discharge the viruses through urine, saliva, latex, semen and cervical secretion within several days, and dont know they have been infected with Cytomegalovirus.
Most AIDS patients might be infected once again by cytomegalovirus, often presenting with viremia. As seen from the aspect of opportunistic infections, it is difficult to evaluate the result caused simply by the re-infection. However, under the condition of low immune function, cytomegalovirus infection can lead to erythema multiforme and thrombocytopenic purpura. Cytomegalovirus infection may involve the whole alimentary canal and manifested as colonitis, rectitis and Persistent herpes-shaped ulcer at the anus, which is also a common cause of diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus can also induce pneumonia, sub-acute cephalitis and retinitis, and even lead to blindness.
(9)Herpes virus infection
Many adults have contacted with herpes viruses, and have the virus latent in their body. Herpes simplex virus may result in the injury of lips, external genitalia and crissum, Herpes zoster virus infection always run along trigeminal and intercostal nerves, with local ardor and sharp pain and herpes taking the shapes of cluster and sheep. Herpes virus infection can stipulate HIV replication and promote the deterioration of diseases. Besides, the combined infection of herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus may forms virus inclusion bodies, and therefore, it is easy to find and identify the viruses by combining cytomegalovirus antibodies and herpes simplex virus antibodies.
(10)EB virus infection
EB virus infection is related to mouth hairy leukoplakia, which manifests as white plaques on the two sides and surface of the tongue and the cheek membrane. The plaques are different in thickness, blurry in boundary, slightly raised, taking the shapes of hair and wrinkled paper and can not be scraped off with tongue spatula. With Southern blot assay, EB virus DNA can be detected in hairy leukoplakia biopsy specimen.
(11)?Papillomavirus (PLV) infection
Papillomavirus (PLV) infection causes condyloma acuminate, manifested as mastoid and cauliflower-shape warts on the anus and external genitalia, pain and itchy. For some patients, Condyloma acuminatamay appear in the rectum and vagina, and large wart can block the rectum, leading to obstruction of alimentary tract. In addition, PLV infection can induce progressive multi-focal leukoencephalopathy, manifested as hypodynamia, facial paralyis, hemiplegia and vision damage. Ct and magnetic resonance display show multi-focal and low density damage in the white matter of brain, and in aspiration biopsy and pathological examination, PLV inclusion bodies can be found and so the disease can be confirmed.
2.Types and major symptoms of opportunistic infections
2.1 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonis
2.2 HIV infection classification and diagnosis standard after modified by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993
AIDS is caused by HIV infections and CD4-T are the main target cells of HIV infections. CD4 cells play an important role in the immune system, and without them the immune system will be seriously damaged. From asymptomatic HIV infection to opportunistic infections caused by immunodeficiency and further to the clinical symptoms featured by tumors are all related to the decrease of CD4.
With the progress of research, the classification and diagnosis standard have been further modified with CD4 count being regarded as an important mark of immunosupression, thus simplifying the classification of HIV infections and facilitating the diagnosis of HIV infections. For details, see Table 5-3.
After infection, HIV will be present in human body for life. The target cells of HIV will be damaged continuously, leading to progressive damage of immune function and progressive decrease of CD4 cells from 1000/mm3 at a speed of 40-80/mm3 a year. The decrease of CD4-T varies with individual cases, and therefore the clinical courses are different, but the CD4 count is usually less than 200/mm3 when clinical symptoms of AIDS appear.

Table 5 HIV infection classification and diagnosis standard revised in 1993

Classification of CD4-T cells

Clinical classification




Primary HIV infection stage, asymptomatic stage or Persistent lymphadenectasis stage

With clinical manifestations but not (A) and (C)

AIDS stage













Clinical classification
A: Asymptomatic HIV infection, acute primary HIV infection accompanied by slight acute virus infection, persistent systematic lymphadenopathy.
B: Persistent clinical symptoms of HIV infections
C: Serious complications, CD4 cell count less than 200/mm3

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