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NANO TEA
Technical scheme for the treatment of AIDS with Nano-tea

General situation of AIDS virology

Starting from its spread, AIDS has shown its typical characteristics as an infectious disease. We can have a convincing explanation about the entry of causative agent into human body at the stage of acute attack of AIDS caused by the source of infection. It spent only 2-3 years from the first report about AIDS to the discovery of the causative agent. In this period, several researchers in the world successively published their research results and submitted them at AIDS symposiums. The names they used were the same in nature, and finally unified as human immunodeficiency virus, normalizing the study on the virus.
1.What is the characteristics of HIVAny virus has its own characteristics to distinguish it from others, and the characteristics are shown in various aspects including the composition, shape, size and reproduction of virus as well as the features of viral antigen and the receptor that connects the virus with host cells.
1.1Composition of HIV
  • Genetic group
  • The core of virus is composed of nucleic acid, the main contents of which are ribonucleic acid or deoxyribonucleic acid, and it is not possible for them to exist in the same core of virus. The nucleic acid contains the genetic substances needed for virus to survive and reproduce. According to the composition of genetic group, HIV is divided into DNA virus and RNA virus.
  • Envelope
  • Envelope is composed of proteins that attached to the outside of the core to protect it.
  • Capsule
  • Some viruses are enclosed in a layer of lipoprotein capsule that is composed of proteins and lipid. These specific substances generated from infected cells. When virus escapes from infected cells, these proteins attaches on the surface of virus through extending out sprouts.

  • Virosome
  • A complete virosome is composed of core genes contained in an envelope The classification of viruses is different from bacteria because they have no cell membrane, nucleus, cytochylema, chromatin and ribosome. They have living substances such as ribonucleic acid and so have the capacity of reproduction. But they should live in cells and therefore they are the parasite in cells.
    1.2Shape and size
    The envelope of virus is closely connected with genes, forming a standard and symmetrical caryosome structure. Different viruses have different shapes, and they are very small, with a diameter ranging from 18-300nm. There hundreds viruses that can infect human being and can be classified according to their shape, size and the composition of nucleic acid.
    1.3Reproduction Viruses, upon entering a host cell, throw away their protein envelopes, because they dont need these contents or their reproduction. They employ the synthesizing machine in their genetic group to capture the nucleus of the cell they have entered. The nucleic acid of viruses has an influence on the existing genetic substances, as well as the bioplasm, energy release and metabolism system of the host cell. The rival genetic groups reprogram the composition of host nuclei and direct them to produce much more viruses, and therefore, the host cell becomes a processing plant of viruses. In an infected host cell, hundreds viruses can be produced, and these new viruses, after mature, will escape from the host cell and infect other cells.
    1.4Antigen characteristics of virus and receptor of host cell
    The antigen features of virus are determined by its surface structure, and various kinds of host cells carry receptors on the surfaces to facilitate combination with various viruses. Viral antigen can be compared to a key and the receptor on cell surface as a lock. Taking T-cell receptor (TCR) for example, the molecule is related with each TCR and classified in accordance with the number of different groups of CD, and the T-cells of different type are related with different kind of mucous molecules, such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD26, etc. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH), also called human leukocyte antigen has been found on the surface of many kinds of virus, and antigen fragments exist, corresponding to TCR.
    2.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    Human immunodeficiency virus belongs to retrovirus family. It is composed of RNA genes and enclosed by a capsule envelope. It has a type of specific enzyme called reverse transcription factor. Once the virus enters the cells, it will make the cells produce much more RNA retroviruses. The reverse transcription renders it easy to produce DNA from RNA and this kind of enzyme is the only characteristic of all retroviruses. Many retroviruses are related with malignant, varied and immunologic diseases. This type of viruses is very weak, not apt to be transmitted, and easy to be killed by common detergent, high temperature and cold drying. The infection caused by the viruses is featured by long-term latency. In the latent period, the DNA in the virus will integrate with the genes of host cells and form sustained infection. Most of the retroviruses have not caused disease to human being until 1980s when the virus was separated from human body. Now it has been found that the viruses that may induce diseases to human body are T-cell leukemia virus type I, II and III (HTLV-I, II and III), HIV-I and HIV-II.
    2.1Structure and features of HIV HIV, assuming a ball shape and having a size of 19-130nm, is composed of 4 parts, e.g. a core, hollow tapered in shape and composed of RNA genetic group and reverse transcriptase, a outer membrane surrounding the core and composed of 2 layers of special lipoid, a layer of glycoprotein (gP41 and gP120) that covers the outer membrane and a inner membrane inside of the outer membrane and composed of 2 layers of proteins (p24 and P18).
    2.2HIV-2 AND HIV-2 Up to now, the origin of HIV is not net clear, but many facts have shown that HIV is a new causative agent in human body. When it is in the body of subhuman (monkey), it dont cause any diseases, but after mutation from the body of African monkeys to the body of human, it can induce AIDS. In 1985, serologic tests were conducted among some Prostitutes who have the symptoms similar to AIDS in Western Africa, and a new type of antibody was discovered. In 1986, a new type of retrovirus is separated from some AIDS patients in Western Africa, such as Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands. The retrovirus is similar to but very different from HIV-1, and called HIV-2. There are significant difference between the two kinds of viruses in the arrangement sequence of chromosome nucleic acid. In addition, HIV-1 has a VPU gene while HIV-2 hasnt, and HIV-2 has a VPX gene that HIV-1 has not. But the two types of genes can be found in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the conjecture of homology of their gene structure, both HIV-1 and HIV-2 belong to SIV and generate from different primates. They are two types of different viruses, and should be regarded as different strain types of the same virus. The two types of viruses have the same infection way, target cell receptor (CD4) and clinical results. However, HIV-1, compared with HIV-2, has low infection capacity and long course of illness, but finally can also cause AIDS.
    2.3HIV-1-0 HIV-1-0 is a new variant of HIV-1 and was found recently in the countries of Central and Western Africa. This variant was remarked with 0, because genetic study has shown it is far from other known viruses. HIV-1-0 is significantly different from both HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the arrangement of nucleotidyl of protein, and even in Africa, it seldom causes infection, which can not detected with some antibodies. However, it also is a latent risk to the health of people, especially in the use of blood products that are recognized as very safe. Other new HIV variant trains may also appear in the future, and so, the medical scientists over the world should actively participate in the study of a method for monitoring and discovering early new type of viral strains and new equipment and serologic test method for deleting and distinguishing HIV1-1-0.
    3. What is the pothophysiology of HIV infection
    3.1Contact with and entrance into target cell The protein of viral envelope, like a key, has a specificity and affinity for the receptor of host cells. HIV, once has contact with CD4 receptor, will penetrate through cell membrane and enter host cell, releasing its contents and leaving its envelope out of the cell. At present, people are trying to restrain the contact between HIV and host cell through GP120 and GP41 antibodies or through sealing CD4 receptor, but in vain.
    3.2 Reverse transcription
    Reverse transcription allows a viral gene to translate its RNA into DNA genetic material, which can enter host cell and fuse with the DNA in the cell. The genetic composition of the virus then becomes permanent part of the cell
    3.3 Reproduction.
    Virus, once fused into host cell, can duplicate itself at any time when the host cell is stipulated to reproduce. Study shows that there is a special gene responsible for replication in HIV, and the special gene can be constrained, so as to inhibit the activity of HIV and the production of viral RNA.
    3.4 Virus release and cell death
    As viral reproduction is carried out in host cell and is gradually increased, the new virus duplicated there will be released from the host cell, the course of which is called budding. During budding, virus makes use of cell membrane to form its own envelope and become a complete virosome, and the host cell, with its membrane being drilled and damaged, will die at once.
    3.5 Formation of syncytium
    The new-born virus looks for new cell with CD4 receptor in the bloodstream, e.g. T4 lymphocyte, and with its strong affinity to various viral antibodies, adsorbs on many T4 lymphocytes and forms a syncytium. The syncytium has no function and will immediately die, and so, even if only one T4 lymphocyte is infected, nearly a hundred of cells will die with it.