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Technical scheme for the treatment of AIDS with Nano-tea

AIDS epidemiology

1.General situation of AIDS epidemiology AIDS is the most spectacular and terrifying disease in the modern medical history. Since AIDS was first reported in 1981, this disease has spread very quickly, and up to now, there is not any method to cure it. Due to its poor prognosis and high mortality, it has shocked the whole world. Up to December 1998, 2,000,000 cases have been reported the whole world, with the infected standing at 33,400,000, an increase averaging 16,000 a day. All the countries in the world have taken action, and put in tremendous manpower and material resources to prevent and treat AIDS. Great progress has been made in the study and the trend of quick epidemic of AIDS has been primarily constrained in some developed countries, but in many developing countries the speed of spread is still continuously increasing. If effective preventive measures are not taken, more and more youths will lose their ability to work or die of AIDS, more and more orphans will become the burden of he society, more and more neonates infected by AIDS will die before reaching their adolescence and some races will be in peril of extinction. The spread of AIDS has surpassed the national boundaries of all countries, attacking and threatening all populations.
2. When and where does AIDS originate from?
Where does human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) originate? When does AIDS appear in human being? Whether AIDS had been long existed and spread before AIDS was reported I 1981? Virologists and epidemiologists have been exploring these problems.
According to the retrospective clinical materials and statistics about the diseases related to AIDS, these diseases can be traced to the end of 1970s. In the statistics from 1971 to 1979, Kaposis sarcoma and pneumocystis carinii were seldom seen, and there were only 19 cases in New York, all of them were male and aged between 15 and 49. But after 1981, the Incidence of Kaposis sarcoma has been increased suddenly and clinical materials strongly suggest AIDS is a new disease never been in the United States.
According to the retrospctive study on stored blood example, the earliest blood specimen that was gained in 1959 and kept up to now was from a man of Bantu in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This man was primarily diagnosed as sickle-red cell anemia. After analysis on this blood example, the research workers found the blood contains the common seen HIV-I. This finding manifests that HIV began to infect human being before 1959, 10-20 years earlier than the time commonly accepted by the present medical cycles. Gene measurement shows that the HIV found in the body of the Tuban man is similar to the prototype structure of many varieties of HIV presently found worldwide. The research workers think that all the HIV varieties at present are evolved from that first found in Africa in 1959.
In human being and quadrumanathere is a large crowd of reverse transcriptase, 40%-50% of them are similar to HIV in genetic structure. In 1900, Huet reported that a grain of virus highly similar to HIV had been separated from an African orangutan and this kind of viruses can enter T cells through CD4 receptor manifested by T cells, and can exist long in the body of orangutan but not always induce disease. The native residents of some areas in Africa caught guadrumana such as orangutan, eaten its meat and inject its blood into their bodies, thinking it would strengthen their body and increase their sexuality.By this way the viruses in the body of quadrumana was transmitted to the human being. About 40-50 years ago, this kind of viruses had varied into two types of viruses different in genetic structure and pathogenicity, namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. It is HIV-1 that has caused the spread of AIDS all over the world. The infection route and pathologic change of HIV-2 are similar to that of HIIV-1, but its pathogenicity is weak and it has been spreading mainly in West Africa.
3. How has AIDS spread?
According to the analysis on retrospective materials, a few cases with symptoms similar to AIDS were reported in 1960s, but it was in the middle and late period of 1970s that AIDS began to spread the world over. Before 1981 when AIDS was first reported, HIV had already spread quietly in the world without being noticed by people. After human is infected, it needs several years for clinical symptoms to appear. Before human being understood the disease, the disease that spread mainly through sexual contact has been circulating frequently among persons in the areas with developed traffic. And the opening of sexual contact in modern society contributes to the spread of AIDS. After the first report about AIDS in 1981, epidemiologists deduced that AIDS was spread through sexual contact. In 1983, the study on this disease was further deepened, finding out that the causative agent of AIDS is virus and it is difficult and needs a long time to surmount it.
In April 1985, the first international AIDS conference was held, and since then, the WHO has strengthened its global guidance and support in the struggle against AIDS and most countries have worked out their preventive plans. Therefore, global struggle in preventing AIDS was waged in a large scale. On the one hand, studies on AIDS were further deepened, investment increased, large-scale public propaganda and education conducted and preventive plans implemented. On the other hand, the number of people infected with AIDS increased at a surprising rapidity, seriously endangering the survival of human being.
According to the statistics on AIDS conducted by WHO, in 1981, there was 270 cases of AIDS in total, of which, 264 cases were in Africa, 6 cases in Europe and no report from other continents; In 1987, 41888 cases were reported, of which, 2627 cases were in Africa, 34195 cases in America, 103 cases in Asia, 4559 cases in Europe and 404 cases in Oceania; In 1993, a total of 718894 cases were reported, of which, 247577 cases were in Africa, 371086 in America, 3561 cases in Asia, 92482 cases in Europe and 4188 cases in Oceania; In 1998, 36 million people were infected with HIV and 11.6 million were died of AIDS. Now over 90% of HIV-infected patients are in developing countries, most of them are living in African countries (about 21 million) south of the Sahara. In Sahara Africa alone, there were 3.4 million new HIV-infected patients in 1997, and in Zambia, HIV infection rate among adults in sexual active period accounts for 25% of the total. In the two years the author worked in Zambia, there were about 10 doctors or nurses in Kabulaibu Hospital died of AIDS or other infectious diseases each year. The hospital has 200 Zambian doctors and nurses, and almost every week, several persons were unable to go to work because they had to attend the funeral of their relatives or friends. Most HIV suffers died at an age between 35-49, hence the spread of AIDS has constituted a dire threat to the health of human being and the social and economic development.
In Africa, only 20 cases of AIDS were reported before 1985, but after 1986, the number of cases was increased rapidly. At present, most countries in Africa are severely afflicted areas of AIDS. In Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and other countries, because of rapid increase of AIDS patients that results in loss of a great number labors, vast fields lie waste and many factories were operating under capacity, because of increasing hospitalization of AIDS patients, these countries are seriously short of doctors and medicine, and because of the death of a great number of young and mature people, a lot of orphans and old men and women are left unattended. AIDS has brought about a serious disaster to the society in Africa.
In our country, it was in 1985 that the first case of AIDS was reported. Up to the end of 1998, there were about AIDS in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (excluding Hang Gong, Taiwan and Macao), with HIV-infected persons over 10000 cases. According to the estimate of experts, at present, the number of HIV-infected patients has increased at an surprising speed and exceeded 500000. In our country, AIDS has entered an increasing period from a period of introduction and expansion, and the alarm has already been sounded for AIDS.
4. What is the infection source of AIDS?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) IS THE causative agent OF AIDS and human being is the only Host and infection source. HIV is a kind of Retrovirus that can be separated from blood, semen, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, tears, uterine cervix secretion, urine, latex and lymph gland, but what plays the role of spread are blood, semen and uterine cervix secretion.
The HIV infected can carry HIV for a long time without any symptoms, but can infect others. HIV antibody can be detected in 95% of HIV- infected persons 3-6 months after being infected, and this period is called window period. There are a few patients who carry HIV for a long time but are tested negative. They are much dangerous infection sources, because the HIV carried by them is difficult to be found through serum test but can infect others. For these persons, the infection can be confirmed by testing HIV antibody in the blood. But it is very complicated and expensive to separate HIV from blood, and it is not possible to measure the antibody for all suspicious HIV-infected patients. However, the infected persons with antigen positive and antibody negative are not in great number and only accounting for over 3% of the total. But as a blood donor, the danger of infection is of radioactivity. 5.What is the transmission form of AIDS?
Since the first report on AIDS in 1981, AIDS has spread all over the world with various forms. In North America, Latin America, West Europe and Oceania, AIDS mainly has spread among male young and middle-aged homosexual populaftion, with only a few of women and children being infected; in African countries south of Sahara, the situation has been different, with almost a half of the infected are women and children; while in Asia and Atlantic regions, the rate of infected male and female almost has increased simultaneously.
It is estimated that among the HIV-infected persons over the world 1/3 are women, and up to 2000, the ratio will up to 1/2 as predicted by the WHO. In 1990, about 3 million women were infected with HIV, and most of them were at birth age and 80% of them were living in Sahara of Africa. In this area, the major transmission was through Heterosexual and 10% of the infected women were infected through blood transfusions. In these countries, HIV test equipment was not available and HIV infection rate was very high, while many infected were at a window period. Because of malaria and pregnancy for many times, many young women in these countries were in poor nutrition and health conditions and were treated with blood transfusion.
Now about 3000 women are infected by HIV every day and about 500 infected women die of diseases related with AIDS, among them, most are at an age between 12 and 24. Among the latest HIV-infected patients, 50% are women, and it is estimated that about 13 million women will be infected with HIV up to 2000.
In Africa, mother-to-child-transmission of HIV is 30%. This means that about 1/3 children born by infected women are infected. Some of them have become orphans and are suffering both from HIV and loneliness.
In the United States, the women with AIDS have increased 3 times in recent 10 years, and every year, about 7000 pregnant women with HIV positive are in labor and about 2000 newborns are infected with HIV due to direct transmission. In 9 cities, AIDS is the most common reason for the death of newborns.
In South Africa, the number of women infected with AIDS exceeds that of men, with a ratio of 6:5. In Middle Africa and East Africa, the largest HIV spreading areas, 35%-40% of pregnant women who go to clinic before delivery are tested positive. In Zambia, 11517 pregnant women were tested before delivery, and 19.8% of them were found HIV positive, with those living in cities higher than those in countryside. In Asia, the infection rate of pregnant women is 8% in Thailand and 1%-2% in India. The situation of HIV infection at present is that Africa ranks the highest in infection rate and Asia the fastest in the increase of infection.