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NANO TEA
Technical scheme for the treatment of AIDS with Nano-tea

1.What is AIDS?
AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
AIDS is a disease in human immune system induced by HIV. It is not a birth disease but an acquired one. When human body is in a normal condition, it has a good defense capacity against various kinds of causative agents, but when it has been infected by HIV, its defense system will be damaged, its function lowered and causative agents and microorganism will take the opportunity to enter through blood and damaged tissue. In addition, some abnormal cells, such as cancer cells, also take the opportunity to grow, reproduce and develop into various kinds of cancer. This means that AIDS patient mainly shows signs of immune system being damaged, defense of organism being so lowered that may induce serious infection or cancer. In the beginning, this disease was spread among homosexual population and drug takers in the United States, and most of them were infected through sexual contact, some through other routes such as blood transfusion and inject. The state of illness is dangerous with low prognosis and high mortality, and so AIDS is called ultra-grade cancer.
2.What is HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a new kind of retrovirus found in resent years. Because this kind of virus mainly invades lymph cells that play a role in immunity, it is called humanT-Lymphotrophic virus. In 1986, with formal approval by the executive members of International Virus Classification Committee, the retrovirus was named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).HIV takes the shape of a ball or a bag with a diameter about 150m and an envelope composed of thin lipides of antigenicity. HIV takes ribonucleic acid (RND) as its inherent mode, while human cell takes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as its inherent mode. After entering human body, HIV, by the action of retrovirus, may fuse with the chromosome DNA of human cells and conduct replication, cleavage and reproduction, or duplicate in accordance with its special form of inheritance, and finally lead to the death of cells. It also may hide in the infected cells for a long time and not induce disease, and thus cause lifelong infection and give rise to disease to the infected.
HIV is present in the semen, plasma, serum, spinal fluid, saliva, tear, urine, breast milk and vaginal secretion of patient, and can infect T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages and langerhans cells as well as cerebral, spinal cord and neural cells. Specialists think that neural tissue is a place where virus can be stored and thus leading to the generation of virus that continuously invades other T cells.
3.What is immunodeficiency?
In the organism, there is a capacity of response to various stimulation and invasion, and immunity is just a protective response of the organism.
The role of immunity lies in the identification and removal of foreign matters to achieve a biological balance and stability state of the organism. The result of immune response is beneficial under normal conditions, but under certain conditions it is also harmful. The major functions of immunity are to remove causative agents and antigen substances, which are a manifestation of anti-infection course, remove the old and degenerative cells and physical components, which is a manifestation of maintaining environmental balance and stability in the organism, and conduct immune supervision, with the removal of degenerative cells commonly seen as the removal of cancer cells.
If under another condition that immune function is luxurious or lowered, it will induce various kind of response that are not beneficial but harmful to the organism and cause damage to the organism. Luxurious response, as seen in immune hyperfunction, may induce self immune diseases represented by allergic reaction disease, while immunodeficiency means the response manifested due to lowered immune function, the result of which is the appearance of organism infection and malignancy. Immunodeficiency can be divided into two kinds, the first is congenital, and the second is acquired, while the pathogenesis of AIDS is mainly the immune function of Th lymphocyte, which leads to the lowering of immune function, a series of opportunistic infections and the occurrence of malignancy. Therefore, AIDS is an acquired disease and is called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
4.How has HIV invaded into the immune system?
HIV always attacks selectively the mainstay in the specific immune system C lymphocyte and destroy the specific immune system, leading to a serious of immunodeficiency symptoms which are called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Study shows that HIV has a special appetency with Th lymphocyte, or in other words, the lymphocyte is the target cell of HIV. After HIV has adhered on the Th lymphocyte, The HIV will inject its inclusion into the lymphocyte to reproduce, and with the aid of reverse transcriptase, transfer its RNA into the DNA of lymphocyte, making the cell a infectious cell containing viral genetic information. HIV makes use of all the conditions provided by the target cell to split and reproduce, and generate thousands of new viruses, which attack other target cells one after another, mainly the Th lymphocyte and also other cells, such as the cells in the nervous system. Moving in endless cycles as that, HIVs will finally spread all over the body. Normal Th lymphocyte is essential to the normal function of immune system, but the function of infectious lymphocyte is greatly lowered and even lost for its being swallowed by virus. In human body, there are about 1000 million Th lymphocytes and it is impossible thatthey are all swallowed by viruses at a draught. Therefore, in the early period (the first stage) of HIV infection, the immune function can still maintain normal and the patient usually has no clinical symptoms of AIDS, and laboratory examination can reveal only slight abnormity (viral test positive and antibody test negative). In the second stage, immune function may be still normal and without clinical manifestation of AIDS, but both laboratory viral test and antibody test are positive. Finally, when HIV has infected lymph gland, the lymph gland of the patient will swell due to inflammation, immune system will be continuously damaged and serious infection may happen in any time. Thereafter, the disease will upgrade step-by-step until the body is unable to defend against all outside infection, and at that time, opportunistic infection and some cancers may develop rapidly and take away the live of the patient.
About the route HIV takes to enter the human body, Prof. Buson, a medical expert of Oslo University in Norway pointed out in 1988 that it is through a kind of langerhans cell in the skin mucous membrane that HIV invades into the tissue of human body and makes the patient infected. He said, only when there is a wound in the skin, can HIV invade langerhans cell, and then enter the lymph gland through lymphatic vessel, reproduce there and infect other cells of the human body. If there is no wound in the skin, HIV is inable to invade into human body through langerhans cell.
5.What is the route HIV takes to spread?
The majority of medical experts think that HIV can spread only through liquid exchanges and the main routes are as follows:

  • Close sexual contact with infected of the same sex or opposite sex;
  • Transfusion or injection of blood or blood products infected with HIV;
  • Mother-to-child-transmission, also called Pregnant transmission, e.g. a pregnant woman who is HIV-infected can pass the virus on to her baby in the womb or during childbirth.
  • Sharing injection needles contaminated with HIV;
  • Transplantation of organs or other tissues.Among them, the most cases are transmitted through sexual contact.
    6.What are the methods to exanimate HIV antigen?
    After HIV has entered human body, the organism uses its immune system to produce a number of specific antibodies to strike back the invaders. These antibodies can survive in the body for many years, even livelong. We can diagnose and deduce whether the patient has been infected with HIV through detecting the presence of antibody in the serum. The methods for examination of patient with AIDS are as follows:
  • Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: This is a color reaction test, combining a completely prepared HIV particle (antigen) with a HIV antibody in the serum of AIDS patient and letting them have a color react with a special chemical agent. This method, simple, flexible, easy to operate and able to detect a small amount of HIV antibodies, is usually used to conduct primary screening test.
  • Western blot assay. This method has a high specificity to HIV antibody, doesnt need live virus as antigen and can be used to exclude false positive.
  • Immunofluorescence assay. This is to combine fixed cell antigen infected by HIV and the antibody in patients serum, in which, anti-human IgG or IGM is added and examined under fluorescence microscope. If the cytoplasm fluorescence is of typical diffusivity, the examination result is positive. This method is often used in the test of high risk population, and the shortage of which is that lymphocyte culture must be available.
    7.What is opportunistic infection?
    Opportunistic infection refers to the case that when the anti-disease capacity, e.g., the immune function of human body is low, it will provide some pathogenic microorganisms that have low attack and pathopoiesis capacity with an opportunity to invade into the body of patient and cause various kind of infections.
    It has been found that more than 10 types of causative agents can cause opportunistic infection to AIDS patient, such as Carinii pneumocystitis, toxoplasm, cryptococcal neoformans, monilia, herpes simplex virus, mycobacterium avium intracellulare, cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporozoan and sporozoan. The opportunistic infection of a patient with AIDS may be multiple infections caused by multiple causative agents, with many organs and tissues frequently infected. For these causative agents, when they are present in normal human body, their pathopoiesis capacity is very low, basically without manifestation of clinical symptoms; but when they are in the body of AIDS patient, it is very serious and may endanger the live of the patient.
    The opportunistic infections of AIDS patient are clinically divided into several types, e.g. lung, central nerve system, stomach and intestine and nameless fever.
    In the opportunistic infection of lung, the most commonly seen is pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, which is the deadly disease for AIDS patient with an infection rate averaging 57%. In the opportunistic infection of central nerve system, the commonly seen diseases are caused by toxoplassma gondii, occurring for the most part in central nerve and peripheral nerve pathological changes, such as dementia syndrome, depression and peripheral nerve pathological change. In the opportunistic infection of stomach and intestine, the mostly encountered is cryptosporidiosis, followed by giardiasis. The former may cause chronic consumptive diarrhea, and the later occurs in the most part in fatty diarrhea. The opportunistic infections of nameless fever are closely related with the infection of mycobacteria.
    8.What is Kaposis sarcoma?
    Kaposis sarcoma is a rare tumor firstly reported by Kaposi, a skin expert of Hungary in 1872 and occurs for the most part in Africa. It has something to do with AIDS, and is considered as A commonly seen tumor of AIDS.
    Kaposis sarcoma is a multiple disease. Generally speaking, it first occurs in the skin of lower limbs, taking the shape of a knot, exhibiting a purple color, elevating slightly and spreading about. The parts where the disease is most likely to occur are the skin and the area around the membrane lymph gland of the upper digestive tract, followed by the liver, spleen, intestines, brain, lung pancreas and testes. The route the sarcoma takes to transfer in human body is not clear, and some experts think it doesnt transfer, but once the sarcoma is found, the patient will die within one or one and a half years. If opportunistic infections occur simultaneously, it will quicken the death of the patient.
    9.What is AIDS related complex?
    The case that has some systemic symptoms and signs of AIDS but has not manifested as opportunistic infection or tumor (such as Kaposis sarcoma or lymphoma in central nervous system) is called AIDS related complex (APC). This disease lies between chronic lymph diseases and AIDS that has rare cancer and serious infection. It is estimated that 25% of patients with AIDS related complex may be attacked by AIDS. At present, it is thought that both AIDS related complex and chronic lymph gland disease are the prophase of AIDS.
    About the diagnosis standard of AIDS related complex, American National Health Institute, AIDS Working Group and Disease Control Center jointly specified that the patient with two items of the following symptoms (or signs) or two items of the following unusual experimental values can be diagnosed as AIDS related complex.

  • Clinical symptoms (or signs) of unknown cause with the following chronic states for more than 3 months: lymphadenopathy 2, not at the part of groin, loss of body weight 7kg (15lb) or 10% of normal weight, fever 38, intermittent fever or continued fever, diarrhea, lacking in strength (discomfort), night sweat.
  • Laboratory test: Reduction of supplementary T lymphocyte, Reduction of the ratio between? supplementary T lymphocyte and suppressive T lymphocyte, Anemia or reduction of leucocyte or reduction of platelet and lymphocyte, Increase of serum protein, Lowering of the reaction of lymphocyte to the transformation of metrocyte with mitochysis source, Non-reaction of skin to various skin test antigen, Increase of circulating immune complexes.
    10.What is the base of AIDS diagnosis?
    American Disease Control Center has stipulated that the diagnosis of AIDS can be confirmed only with symptoms and signs of immunodeficiency with other causes excluded, Kaposis sarcoma or at least one kind of opportunistic infection, Combination of virus isolation and serological examination.
    At the symposium on AIDS convened by WHO in October 1985, a temporary clinical diagnosis standard was drafted for the countries that have limited diagnosis capacity or have non immunological diagnosis conditions and was examined by the second conference of WHO AIDS Cooperation Center after slight modifications. The main contents of the standard are as follows:
    Under the conditions of lacking in immunodepression causes already known (such as cancer, serious malnutrition or other identified causes), adult AIDS can be confirmed with two types of the following major physical signs accompanied with at least one type of secondary signs.
    Major physical signs: Reduction of body weight 10% of the original weight, Chronic diarrhea > 1 month, Lon-time fever > 1 month, intermittent fever or continued fever.
    Secondary physical signs: persistent cough > 1 month, systemic itching dermatitis, recurrent band-shaped skin rash, moniliasis in the mouth and throat, chronic progressive or disseminated simple bleb infection, Chronic lymphadenopathy. If systemic Kaposis sarcoma and cryptococcal meningitis occur simultaneously, it can be diagnosed as AIDS.
    11.What is the clinical meaning of positive AIDS antigen and antibody in different period?
    For the human body, what HIV invades is the Th lymphocyte in the cell immune system, which results in immunodeficiency and finally the appearance of clinical symptoms of infection at advanced stage in the patient. As for the antigen and antibody specific to the virus itself, the growth and decline of antigen and antibody can illustrate the state of the illness and guide the clinical diagnosis at different stages.
    Once a antigen positive is detected, it indicates the person has been infected by HIV. This has two meanings and always represents the different stages of infection. If a large number of HIV has infected the HIV carrier, the reproduction of HIV in the Th lymphocyte is also in large number. Although it is still in the latent period, HIV antigen can be detected in the blood serum, and for the HIV carrier found for the first time, this may be used as the base for early diagnosis. On the other hand, with the lapse of time, HIV antigen continues stimulate the organism to produce antibody, and when the number of antibodies is large enough to neutralize the antigens, the antigen in the blood can not be detected. When approaching the end of latent period, the viral replication significantly increases and quickens, and at this time, the HIV antigens once again appear in the serum and the Th lymphocyte count in the body relatively decreases in the body, indicating the end of latent period of HIV and the appearance of AIDS. At this time the disease has already entered its advanced stage.
    The generation of HIV antigen in the body always begins 4-12 weeks after being inflected. This happens not at the early stage of infection or the window stage (refers to a blank period when antigen has disappeared and antibody has not appeared), but it is an indication of having entered the latent stage. If a person is detected as antibody positive, the person should be considered as HIV carrier.

    3 stages of immune reaction in human body after HIV infection


    Stage

    HIV in the? body

    Immune reaction

    Examination of HIV antigen in the blood

    Clinical symptoms

     

     

     

     

    No symptom

    Talent period

    Infectious

    1

    Yes

    No

    Positive

    Negative

    HIV carrier

    2

    Yes

    Normal

    Positive

    Negative

    HIV carrier

    3

    Yes or no

    Abnormal

    Positive or negative Positive

    Appearance of symptoms death

    Next

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