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NANO TEA
Technical scheme for the treatment of AIDS with Nano-tea

AIDS diagnosis and treatment guidance Preface

At present, AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, also called AIDS virus) as its pathogeny is not only a public health problem that seriously threatens the Chinese peoples health, but also a factor that have a serious impact on the economic development and social stability of our country.
Entrusted by the Ministry of Public Health, the Chinese Medical Association has organized relevant experts at home to formulate our countrys AIDS diagnosis and treatment guidance (draft) (hereafter called guidance) in accordance with the medical principle, in light of the latest study results at home and abroad, and in connection with the actual situation in our country. The diagnosis and treatment guidance includes epidemiology, Aetiological features, onset mechanism, pathological change, clinical manifestation and stages, laboratory examination, diagnosis, antireboviral therapy, diagnosis and treatment of commonly encountered opportunistic infections, blocking principle of Mother to Child: transmission, treatment of occupational exposure, especially focusing on the introduction to HAAPT (highly active antiretroviral therapy) that is the key of treating AIDS at present.
The guidance is featured by: 1. systematicness and completeness including management principles from basis to clinic and from treatment and diagnosis; 2. scientificness in writing the guidance according to medical evidences and not recommending the view points unverified and the prevention and treatment methods unconfirmed with clinical efficacy; 3. clinical practicability and innovation, collecting as much as possible the common understanding (the division of stages and treatment criteria in particular) and connecting with the actual situation and the clinical characteristics of AIDS patients in our country; 4. The Antiretroviral regimens are recommended mainly on the basis of the existing drugs currently available at home.
It should be pointed out that the essence of clinical medicine lies in adopting reasonable diagnosis and treatment measures in accordance with the actual situation of patients and the existing medical sources. The contemporary medicine is developing rapidly, with new theories, concept, diagnostic technology and prevention and treatment methods appeared continuously. The guidance will be modified and renewed periodically in accordance with the latest clinical evidences.

1.Epidemiology

AIDS, from its being found to its unchecked spread in the world had infected 69 million people including 27 million dead up to the end of 2003. AIDS was introduced in to our country in 1985, and up to the end of 2003, the living people infected with HIV are estimated to be 840,000 including 80,000 AIDS patients. The epidemic situation is serious, with the disease having widely spread over all the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Our country is facing with a climax of AIDS onset and death, with HIV beginning to spread from the high-risk population group such as drug addicts and prostitutes to common people.
Transmission source: HIV infected persons and AIDS patients are the only source of infection.
Transmission route: HIV is mainly present in the blood, Semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk of infected persons, and is transmitted through sexual contact (including the same sexual, opposite sexual, and bisexual contact), blood and blood products (including injection drug needles and intervening medical operation) and mother-to-child-transmission (including pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding), and not through daily contact such as shaking hands, hugging, formal kiss, dishes, drinking glasses, lavatory, bathroom, office appliance, traffic facilities and entertainment facilities.
Susceptible population group: People are all vulnerable to HIV, and HIV infection is closely connected with the behavior of human being, but male homosexuals, venous drug addicts and those having constant contact with HIV carriers and frequently having blood transfusion all belong to the high-risk population group.
Case report: Once a HIV/AIDS patient is found, it should be reported to the local disease prevention and control center.
Medical management: strictly keeping secret, strengthening follow-up survey, proving medical and mental counseling.
Prevention measures: establish healthy sexual concept, correctly use latex condom and conduct safe sexual behavior; dont take drugs and share needles; popularize voluntary donation of blood and conduct check and selection of blood donators; Strengthen hospital management, control cross infection in hospitals, prevent occupational exposure to infection; control mother to child transmission; conduct medical check and HIV examination on the partners, sexual contactors and children of HIV/AIDS suffers as well as venous drug dependants who share injectors with HIV/AIDS patients, and provide to them counseling services.

2.Aetiological features

HIV belongs human chronic virus group of chronic virus category of retrovirus family. Being a spherical particle with a diameter about 100-120nm, it is composed of a core and a capsule. The core comprises 2 sub-thread RNA chains, a core structure protein and enzymes needed for virus replication, containing reverse tramscriptase (RT, P51/P66), integrase (INT, P32) and protease (PI, P10). Outside the core are viral coating proteins (P24, P17) and the most outer layer of the virus is a capsule set with an outer-membrane glucoprotein (gp120) and a spanning-membrane glucoprotein (gp1).
HIV gene is about 9.8kb long, containing 3 structural genes (gag, pol and env), 2 regulating genes (tat and rev) and 4 auxiliary genes (nef, vpr, vpu and vif).
HIV is a kind of high- variability virus, with its genes having different variance and the env gene the highest. The reasons of HIV variance include random mutation because reverse tramscriptase has no correct function; the pressure on host in immune selection; the gene recombination between the ARVs of DNA and between viral DNA and host DNA; and the pressure of drug selection, among which, irregular anti-virus therapy is the main reason that leads to the drug resistance of HIV.
According to the gene difference, HIV can be divided into HIV-1 and HIV-2, between which, the autoploidy of helium acid is 40% -60%. At present, the HIV that has spread worldwide is HIV-1 (in this guidance, HIV refers to HIV-1 unless specified specifically). HIV-1 can be further divided into different subtypes, including M sub-group (the major subtype), O sub-group and N sub-group, and in the M sub-group, there are 11 subtype: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, and K. In addition, several recombination types have been found
prevalent in resent years. HIV-2 is similar to HIV in respect of biological performances, but lower in transmission, slower in clinical progression and lighter in symptoms. The HIV-2 has at least 7 subtypes, e.g. A, B, C, D, E, F and G.
The main epidemic strain in our country is HIV-1, and 8 subtypes, e.g. A, B(Europe-America B), B (Thailand B), C, D, E, F and G, and different recombination groups as well. Since 1999, it has been found and confirmed that there are a few of HIV-2 infected in some area in our country. It is of great importance to find and identify in time the HIV subtypes for tracing the epidemic trend, making a diagnosis, developing new diagnostic reagents, drugs and vaccines.
To enter the cells in human body, HIV needs to rely on the acceptors on the surface of susceptible cells, including the first acceptor (CD4, the main acceptor) and the second acceptor (the auxiliary acceptors, such as CCR5 and CxCR4). According to the characteristics the HIV makes use of auxiliary acceptors, HIV toxic strains is divided into X4 and R5. The B5 virus usually only uses CCR5 acceptor, while X4 not only uses CxCR4, CCR5 and CCR3 acceptors, but also CCR2b.
HIV is weak in surviving capacity in the outside surroundings and low in defense against physical and chemical factors. Therefore, all the effective disinfecting and inactivating methods against HBV are applicable to HIV. Besides, 75% alcohol can inactivate HIV, but ultraviolet radiation orray not.
HIV is sensitive to heat, and its heat tolerance is stronger at low temperature than at high temperature. After treatment at 56 for 30 minutes, it will lose its infection to the T lymphocytes outside of human body, but can not be inactivated in blood serum; at 100 for 20 minutes, all the HIV can be inactivated.

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